Global Warming : Fact or Fiction

Mother Nature is grabbing our attention. Its signals becoming increasingly loud and clear. According to NASA, the average global temperature on Earth has increased by 0.9° Celsius since 1880 . 2016 was warmest year in the recorded history. Weather pattern is becoming inconsistent. Heat waves, tornadoes and cyclones are getting more frequent and devastating. Human beings have made progress by compromising on nature; clearing the green pastures for building housing societies ; reducing forest covers to develop new cities ; polluting air to run vehicles and factories. 43 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide  (CO2) is emitted every year in atmosphere due to industrial chimneys, vehicles, kilns, forest fires and other such carbon producing sources. There is greater consensus amongst scientists that major cause of rise in global temperature is attributed to huge built of carbon dioxide  (CO2). Still, there are few deniers who question the reality of global warming. There is still rare scepticism about global warming, some of which results from few climate scientists. Unfortunately, however, there are good amount of  biased “scientific studies” financed by corporations and other parties, which benefit from current patterns of energy production and consumption and fight any reforms bound to affect their interests. Fact is that there is consensus of scientists that global warming is real phenomenon and it can be devastating for the life on Earth. Findings of all reliable scientific studies and visible manifestations of climate change leave no room to question the reality of global warming.
There is global consensus among scientists on issue of global warming. According to NASA, 97% of scientists agree that global warming is real phenonmenon and it is largely human-induced. Such consensus, especially in the age of scientific enquiry , is unprecedented. Agreement of scientists has not been achieved by blindly following each other and toeing the lines of inter-governmental agencies. After experiments, empirical evidences and data analytics, scientists have concluded that green house gases (GHGs) are major cause of global warming. According to Inter-governmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC), carbon dioxide  (CO2) makes up 65 per cent of green house gases. Therefore, rise in Earth surface temperature is largely attributed to carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. First, it was Swedish Scientist Arrhenius, who suspected that rise in temperature of  Earth surface is due to carbon dioxide  (CO2). Since Arrhenius Times, hundreds of experiments and empirical evidences have proven the Arrhenius’ hypothesis.
Scientists have found that concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased over the time.According to NASA studies, concentration of carbon dioxide  in 1950 was 315 ppm. Over the course of 70 years,  CO2 concentrations have crossed 400 ppm. Such rapid increase in CO2  in atmosphere is due to excessive use of fossil fuels during 20th century.
Scientific revelations forced United Nations to form Inter-governmental Commission on Climate Change (IPCC) to study the global warming and its impact on climate. IPCC consists of 300 prominent scientists representing different countries. IPCC’s findings are very clear on global warming that green house gases have caused global warming. These findings forced the member countries to form joint action plan to fight against climate change. Paris agreement, 2015 was milestone achievement in this regard. Moreover, it was unanimous declaration of states that global warming is undeniable reality and there is no room for confusion.
In addition, there are visible signs of global warming. Whether it is 2019, being hottest year in history of Australia and more violent hurricanes in United States since 1980s, there are ample manifestations that weather is getting out of control. There are 72000 glaciers in Pakistan. Out of which, 120 have shown the signs the melting according to Pakistan Meteorological Department. Recent report published by leading United Kingdom(UK)’s newspaper, Guardian, says according to declassified United States’ satellite imagery, Himalaya’s rate of melting has increased two times as compared to previous century.  8bn tonnes of ice are being lost every year and not replaced by snow and lower level glaciers shrinking in height by 5 meters annually. Only in Pakistan, heat waves killed approximately 2000 people in Karachi during 2015. Indian Ocean has seen frequent storms and it has affected the coastal cities of India and Bangladesh. Recent cyclone, Amphan, was one of the destructive cyclones experienced by Indian coastal cities which claimed 118 lives. Sea level along Karachi’s coast has risen 10 cm in the last century. Sea-levels are projected to rise by one metre by 2100, severely affecting low-lying coastal cities.
Despite wide-ranging consensus on global warming, there are very few deniers of global warming. They claim that global warming is just fiction written by climate scientists to receive funds, protect their jobs and make United Nations (UN) more relevant. They question the data analysis. Many media reports have proven that oil companies are lobbying to make global warming irrelevant, insignificant and doubtful subject.  ExxonMobile , Shell and other oil companies doled million dollar funds  in media to avoid any consensus among opinion makers, confuse policy makers and create doubts amongst public. According to Washington post, in the 1990s, oil companies, fossil fuel industry trade groups and their respective public relations (PR) firms promoted such scientists as experts whose opinions on climate change should be considered equal and opposite to that of climate scientists. Moreover, media has its vested interests. It receives huge sums of advertising revenue from these companies. Moreover, creating confusion on the subject of global warming suits some states’ policies. Matter of the fact is that states are not ready to compromise on the immediate gains of fossil fuel energy over long-term sustainable development.
Former US president, Al- Gore has created “Climate Reality Project” to counter deniers and skeptics. They regularly publish articles to unmask hypocrisy of so called scientists. In an article , “three ways climate-deniers cherry-pick data about climate change” analyses the data manipulation techniques of climate change deniers. 1998 was warmest year till 2016 in United States’ history. Deniers and skeptics simply compare temperature of two years ,1998 and 2010, and deduce that global warming has not actually happened, opposite to claims of IPCC, NASA and other climate scientists. Moreover, they cherry-pick data that decade long average temperature of Earth’s surface has shown no increase. In their reports, they have taken data from 1998 to 2010 and proved average Earth Temperature has remained stable. Since 1998 was hottest recorded year, so any graph that starts from highest point can not show increasing trend. If one takes average of years from 1999 to 2010, there is gradual increase in temperature of Earth’s surface temperature. Due to intellectual dishonesty and manipulation of data, they averaged out 12 years from 1998 to 2010. A layman does not understand the complexities of data analytics, so he gets confused and non-science  policy maker are carried away by such dishonest calculations.
Moreover, they confuse the public by questioning the scientific proven facts. For instance, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) professor Richard Lindzen,key denier of  Global warming, says that CO2 concentration have never been threat to life. When life started on Earth, CO2 concentrations were quite large. Recent CO2 concentrations are no way nearer to earlier CO2 concentrations. According to Guardian, Lindzen was wrong about nearly every major climate argument he has made over the past two decades. His baseless claims have been rejected by his fellow MIT professors. Such skeptic approach by few scientists favours reluctant states, oil mafias and vested media interests.
To conclude, global warming is visible spectre in the form of inconsistent rains, hurricanes and tornadoes, heat waves, average temperature rise, acidification of arctic icecaps, signs of melting of glaciers and changing seasonal durations.  All these signs show that Mother Nature is on course of self-correction and may cause irreparable dangers in times to come. Climate denial machines fueled by Fossil fuel companies cannot hide the dragon, knocking at the door. There is deep realization among international community about dangers of global warming. It is energy competition and greed for power that has stopped the way of agreed framework to fight global warming. It is global issue which transcends boundaries, territories, nationalities and ethnicities. It is capable of overcoming all barriers and uniting humanity.

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Making of New Provinces

A succinct comparison between two brotherly Islamic countries, Pakistan and Turkey, reveals that both have roughly the same area. Turkey has slightly larger area of 783,562 Sq.km as compared to Pakistan’s 796096 Sq.km. Total population of Turkey is 82 million while Pakistan has 220 million inhabitants. Turkey has 81 provinces despite identical area and a lesser population. It created 14 new provinces since 1989. Whereas, Pakistan has been reluctant in creation of new provinces. Iran had 12 provinces till 1950 ; it has now 26 provinces. Since 1947, India has created 15 new states. Many countries , Turkey, India and Iran to name a few , have created new administrative units to improve governance, bring prosperity and quell separatism. Call for new provinces has also picked up in Pakistan in recent past. Advocates of new provinces say that division of existing federating units into smaller units is essential for improving the quality of governance, administration and service delivery. To some extent, all  the major political parties agree on the formation of new provinces but the framework is yet to be decided. But it is not easy to evolve political consensus for this gigantic task considering the type of political polarization and complex constitutional process for creating new federating units. Nevertheless, Creating new provinces on agreed framework is much needed to devolve power, authority and resources to develop neglected areas and improve administration.
Cursory view of Punjab from Dera Ghazi Khan to Upper Punjab can give clear picture of what the regional disparity really means. Distribution of resources have been limited to the major cities. Over the period of time, this has created sense of deprivation amongst neglected areas of Punjab. Such voices have been heard from other provinces as well. Hazara has been isolated, distinct and neglected from rest of KPK.
Unequal distribution of population, hence power, is source of dissatisfaction and bickering amongst provinces. Smaller provinces have been critical of Punjab due to its greater access to resources. Punjab enjoys 52%  of total provinces’ share under NFC Award. Smaller provinces feel that Punjab holds keys to power and protection of their rights lies in bandwagoning with “big brother”. Creation of new province out of Punjab can quell dissatisfaction amongst smaller provinces.
Moreover, devolution of power is key to governance. Smaller administrative units can be better governed by their own political and administrative machinery. Political elite can be more accountable to the masses and bureaucracy can efficiently govern. Urbanization rate in Pakistan is 2.3% which means cities will cope with half of the population by 2025. Growth rate of major cities is horrible specter. From 1998 to 2017,  just Lahore showed 110% growth. In addition, enormous population rate, 2.4% , is ticking time bomb for major cities. Creating new administrative units can check urbanization and growth of major cities. If inhabitants of South Punjab will have all facilities to nearby administrative center, say Multan, then they will not migrate to Lahore.
In addition, there is need of more federating units for promotion of democracy. Chequered political history of Pakistan bears witness to that fact that unequal distribution of population, hence power, has threatened the spirit of democracy. Electoral dominance of party in Punjab , which occupies 141 general seats out of 272 general seats , means keys to rule. Any party controlling  punjab succeeds in forming government in the centre. More adminstrative units will ensure greater competition amongst political forces and it will create less void for political maneuvering which in turn will promote democratic culture.
In the recent past, there has been hot debate on new provinces. In 2012, Punjab assembly passed unanimous resolution on the creation of South Punjab. PTI government passed resolution for creation of new province , Hazara , in KPK in 2014. Those resolutions could not materialize into reality due to political differences. But it is positive side of the episode that all major parties are of consistent opinion on creation of new provinces.
All major political parties have made creation of new provinces part of their electoral campaigns. PTI went an extra mile by making demand of South Punjab amongst 11 points 2018 election manifesto. More than often, Mutahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) has demanded that Karachi may be made a separate province. Political rhetoric of political parties on new provinces, one may doubt their intentions, is new found phenonmenon.
Above all, ruling party has been vocal about new provinces. Imran Khan unambiguously demanded creation of South Punjab. Till now, PTI Government has made some strides in this direction. Chief Minister Punjab, Usman Buzdar , has announced the Additional Inspector General  and Additional Chief Secretary for the proposed South Punjab’s secretariat, taking first solid step towards creation of new province.
Demand for new provinces has their own challenges. Toughest of the challenges is finding political consensus for agreed framework for creation of new provinces. There are demands of provinces on different pretexts. Some are demanding largely on linguistic base, such as Saraiki province. Others have demanded on the ethnicity grounds, such as Hazara province. Some have argued that Bahawalpur may be made separate province due to its historical status of separate state prior to annexation to Pakistan. MQM demands Karachi to be made separate province due to governance challenges, law and order issues and inadequate share in development funds. Therefore finding political consensus on agreed framework seems to be slippery path.
Likewise, formulating criteria for reorganizing existing provinces and creating new provinces is not easy. New provinces does not come into exist in space. Financial fasibility, administrative needs, geo-graphical location, population size, ethnic biases, linguistic prejudices and vested political interests are few considerable factors for any agreed framework. Considering political polarisation, hung parliament and self-serving political elite, formulation of agreed framework looks tedious task.
Moreover, Two-thirds majority is mandatory not only in the Senate and National Assembly but also in affected province for creation of new province. Article 239 (4) says that creation of new federating unit requires 2/3rd majority of affected province before it is presented to president. Prior to it, national assembly has to amend Articles 1, 51, 59, 106 (1), 175A and 218 of 1973 constitution. Indian Constitution has liberal stance on creation of new province. Article 3  requires simple majority in parliament and it does not need consent of affected state.
Furthermore, some nationalist parties may object that mere division of Punjab can disturb the balance of power in the Senate.  Since the Senate has equal representation of all federating units, slicing Punjab into two provinces can alarm the nationalist parties . They may think that Punjabies will have greater representation in Senate. Barrister Syed Ali Zafar, former interim law minister, has quoted  such incident in his article “Is South Punjab Possible” in “The News”. Once someone mentioned scheme of South Punjab to Nawab Akbar Bugti. Bugti remarked that Punjabies are smart enough, they want to control the Senate by giving Punjab an edge by slicing it into two. Such feeling may run deep into other nationalist leaders as well.
Way-forward for this significant task is carefully drawn framework for creation of provinces, keeping in mind pros and cons. A think tank of experts should be constituted to bring forth such framework which caters all challenging points. Adding to it, commission of seasoned politicians may be formed to develop consensus amongst the parties on constitutional, administrative and legal aspects for new provinces.
To conclude, creation of new provinces is needed for better administration and just resource distribution. But this is fraught with challenges. Political debate on this subject is silver lining . If political parties shun their political differences and evolve joint mechanism for creation of new administrative units, then this could be water-shed moment in the history of Pakistan. It is positive sign that this issue has become talk of the town due to vocal social media, vibrant electronic and print media , political discourse and rise of local leadership from neglected areas. Political assent may take time to evolve but it always guarantees path of stability, sanity and solidarity.

 

Post Covid-19 World

Covid-19 Virus has shaken the world. To date, more than 0.5 millions have died and hundreds of thousands of people are battling for their lives. Millions of families are grief-stricken after loss of jobs due to closure of companies, deportation of migrant workers and lock-downs. Advocates and champions of liberalism are no where in these trying times. Much celebrated EU , often quoted example of globalization and liberalism , remained spectator while hundreds of thousands of people died in its member countries. Throughout the Corona virus pandemic, there has been lack of co-ordination and co-operation: Countries imposed their own restrictions, enforced their own border controls and banned the export of much needed medical supplies. It is glaring fact that hard-hit Italy received speedier help from China than from its own EU partners. That has left a dark scar on the face of EU and sour taste for champions of liberalism. Once the cheerleader of liberal values , U.S., has now decided to suspend funds to World Health Organization (WHO). Remittances that make up the fair portion of war-torn, conflict ridden and developing economies have frozen. The use of digital tools has spiked across public and private sectors during corona virus pandemic. Virus screening is likely to become a new normal amongst ourselves much like clearance became ubiquitous after 9/11. Therefore, a world is in making in which states will look inward, ushering an era of deglobalization, self-reliance and digitalization.
China was the epicentre of Covid-19 in Jan, 2020. After strict lock-down of few months, It has celebrated the victory over Covid-19. It became largest aid provider to different countries.  Now, it could reinforce its already advantaged position, advance strategic goals and undercut U.S. efforts to compete in different parts of the world. Gone are the days, when U.S. would lead international humanitarian efforts to address global crises as it did in Tsunami (2004) and during Ebola Outbreak in 2014-2016.
In post Covid-19 world, isolationalistic and nationalistic narrative will dominate in national and international politics. States will look more inward and will try to become self-reliant on essential goods and their supplies. Immigration policies will become more draconian. Migrant workers may struggle to find their place. Right-wing politics, which thrives on populism, isolationism and narrow nationalism, will become universal spectre.
Large corporations, business enterprises and manufacturing industries will shift their jobs to their native states and will make their operations and processes automated and digital, as far as possible, to cut down the frequency of human interface. It will cause massive unemployment as huge chunk of skilled workforce will go out of work.
It may be less fortunate world for poor and developing economies with already millions of migrant workers returned, remittances frozen and health system almost collapsed. With reshoring and digitalization of major corporations, companies and businesses, North-South gap will further deepen and third world countries will battle for self-reliance.
Digitalization, automation and use of technology would be hallmark of Post-Covid world. To date, public sector has been reluctant to digital transformation. But a new urge has been felt by government sector to maximise use of technology in its services. Many government sectors have used modern information communication technologies for interactions and information dissemination. Many private schools are using “Zoom App” for tele-education. Many public and private hospitals are providing tele-health services to patients. Even national and international conferences have been conducted on virtual space . SAARC, WHO and OIC virtual conferences, just to name a few, have been convened online. These trends will not go away in post Covid-19 world rather they will become more entrenched in public and private sectors.
The last but not the least, virus screening may become security protocol at airports just like security clearance. Moreover, health system may become hotly debated topic amongst liberal economies. There is creeping urge amongst states that health sector can not be left to private hospitals. Therefore, many states may go for nationalization of health services to control any endemic. Recent example is of Spain which nationalised all of its hospitals and health workers in its move to combat the spread of coronavirus.
To conclude, post Covid-19 world will be averse to globalization, more prone to nationalism and less accepting to liberal ideas. North-South Gap will further increase. Struggling economies will further suffer and high-tech capitalistic entities will reap gains. However, many crises have given birth to wonderful phenomena. International institutions and liberal idea were born in war-ravaged West. Let’s hope that major powers and humanity as a whole chart a course which will bring co-operation and mutual gains.

 

 

 

Solving The Paradox Of Desi Liberals

You are liberal if you believe and advocate free expression of choice with out any bounds and limitations. It is liberal belief that there should be no restriction of any kind against personal choices. Liberals have all the reasons to prove that they should not bind themselves in any frame of thought because they are in “liberal frame of thought”. Many popular claims are gender equality  , free expression of voice  and free expression of choice. These noble liberal claims have interesting impressions to follow.
Firstly, gender equality means a woman can do whatever a man can do.” Gender roles are socially constructed that are  developed over the passage of time. It has nothing to do with biological, psychological and genetic make up of both gender”. Gender equality is maxim that is well fed by liberals.
A layman may ask that why a man does not develop motherhood if it is all about gender equality. Why only woman has medical issues ? Why only a man develops thick beard ? Why does a girl achieve age of puberty earlier than boy? Why do man remains marriage-able in later life? Why not man bears the pain of child birth ?
Liberals may say that gender equality is all about opportunities, choices and application.
In known history, marriage has been considered only institution that anchors the society on strong footholds. These liberals expression of marriage is somewhat hysterical. They consider that marriage is personal contact between two persons irrespective of gender. Choice  of sexual orientation is somewhat personal. Society should not have issues over that. hot debate triggered last year when Iman Mizari, daughter of Shireen Mizari, advocated same sex marriage . few liberal thinkers came with maxim of “freedom of choice” in the choice of sexual orientation. If woman puts on half dress or virtually no dress, liberal will support all the way in the name of  “freedom of choice”
Another important aspect of being liberal is to speak against military institutions.It shows liberal’s dutch courage. It signifies that you have got the perfection in liberalism.. Discussing the security and foreign policy on personal whims is well justified.
Another important aspect to become liberal is to target religious norms that lead the people to some kind of civility and modesty. It is habit to make joke of every social and moral value that does not cater the material benefit. Any sort of binding in any form or manifestation is opposite to very basic principle of freedom of expression. Condemning religious laws to protect the chastity of women is very fabric of liberal attire. No liberal can not attain the perfection if it does not disgraces Hijab and sexual fidelity.
Fourthly, to be liberal, you must be great claimant of freedom of expression. You can hurt religious sentiments, ridicule social norms, joke ethical standards and tear down morality fabrics in the guise of freedom of expression.

Solving The Media Paradox

Syria faces the worst migration crisis with lesser media representation. Kashmir faces worst state-terrorism with no popular attention of international media. Organized Rohingya genocide by Burmese Government is not the major concern of media which runs on issues and events. In comparison, death of Whites in Gays club seize the marathon coverage of media. Why is media so conservative and stereotyped in highlighting issues, it is worth-asking question.Why does media play double standard role in down-playing some incident or event. Why does it magnifies an issue to such an extent that it over-shadows many important aspects?
Firstly, global commercial media system is dominated by a small number of super-powerful mostly american based transnational media corporations.
Secondly, many interest groups manipulate the media for their own interests because they contribute in giving revenue to media in terms of advertising.
Thirdly, many of the large media corporations in all over the world and in Pakistan have the vertical integration. It means that they have their separate business along side media monopoly۔ They can go to any extreme to project and promote their business even its consequences are harmful. We are not likely to read deep criticism about economic, political or other policies that goes against the interests of the company owned by media conglomerate. We will hardly hear any criticism on heavily priced private education in Pakistan because it is against the interests of few media giants who own media institutions. You can hardly listen the core hygienic issues being discussed behind acute rise of heart problem and cancer because such discussions are not of worth-benefiting to media owners who have their own business or rely on industrial giants to supply advertising revenue.

Fourthly, in Pakistan and all over the world, military establishment filters the media to pursue improved institutional image by waging powerful media propaganda. Military propaganda is a common theme stereotyped in the developing nations that are undergoing some sort of conflict such as civil wars and border dispute.
Fifthly, media has become more a commercial and business entity. Media-industy complex avoids any debate that can question the industrial growth of relative company. Media is always trying to reserve business community’s rights on all grounds and at every cost and this attitude is not media’s own attitude. It is some kind of business attitude. In fact it is approach of those who don’t care about truth rather what they care about is their business gains.
How did western media projected the gulf war of 1991 and how media portrayed war on terror in Iraq in 2003 leaves the question that how far media can go to be led by nose by powerful interest groups to manipulate the public opinion.
Most hysterical media display was the destruction of a statue of Saddam Hussein on live global television provided pricely images desired by pentagon and bush administration. Closer analysis of this spectacle revealed that rather than mass rage against the Saddam Hussein, there were few assaulting the Saddam Hussein’s statue. Sound analysis of this spectacle revealed that there was small crowd around the statue and mostly the square was empty. Those assaulting the statue were mainly the members of the US- supported Iraqi national congress.
Closing the discourse, true independent media is distant dream in capitalistic world.

Western Culture; Its roots and Implications

For centuries, West has been under the sway of traditional Christianity. Ever encompassing impact of church on the politics and economy seized the intellect and rationality. Every voice and thought that can cause damage to Church’s authority was subdued. On side, Church has strong dominance on political, social and economical circles and on the other hand, inter-sect rivalries of Christians polarized the society on biased lines. After the invention of printing press and other communication technologies, dominance of church’s message feigned with different thoughts and contradictions started to be discussed. Many philosophers and scientists went into arduous test of trials and tribulations in the wake of threatening Church credibility. Europe saw historical political struggle leading to more inclusive political institutions. Anti-church sentiments escalated to such level that people started to disown religion. After industrial revolution, dynamics of social life experienced a new change. Matter and materialism started to be regard as God-father of everything. Banks, commercial plazas, dancing halls, bars, night clubs and stock-exchange replaced the church. Every social value that did not cater material benefit to society started to diminish from society. Only those morals were advocated that added material benefit to society. In this way, religion lost its significance against materialistic western philosophy.
Why did Church lost its significance and why Christianity was abandoned in practice, it is worth-asking question. According to Christianity, man is born with innate evil and he cannot achieve moral excellence unless he abandons the biological cravings. This religious philosophy bounds an individual to adopt asceticism if he is seeker of moral excellence. On societal level, this thinking builds the empire of backwardness and intellectual impasse. A society that anchors on social and political foundations cannot be built on religious philosophy that is devoid of materialistic value. It was needed that Christianity and materialism may find some common juncture so that moral excellence over material advancement should not be compromised. Islam terms human nature innately positive. Prophet of Islam (PBUH) said that every child comes on this earth as muslim (Saheh Bukhari). Islam advocates that struggle for  moral excellence and strife for fulfillment of material needs should go together  with balance and moderation.
It is historical tragedy that Crusades led propaganda against Islam infiltrated the intellectual mind of west that was getting free from yokes of Church. Dis-integrated Europe became Union against Islam under guide of religious clergy in the times of crusade. It was saddening for church also because religion that built unity amongst European states in the times of crusade was soon divorced and material advancement was adopted as point of unification. Islam could have fed the intellectual mind of west that was striving for a system of spiritual and material matrix. A system of life that not only catered the spiritual demands but also fulfilled intellectual and materialistic requirements. Western society based on materialism is going through worst moral crisis of history. In pursuit of lust, dancing halls, bars and night clubs were made. Sexual fidelity and filial love that are basis of family structure were sacrificed to fulfil the biological demands of mind body was hollowed spiritually. Let’s see how does materialism of west experience new changes in times to come.

From Industrial society to information society, How our society changed

Once it was agricultural society. Land was considered main influencing source of power. Land owners could maneuver and minuplate the interests of common people by restricting their wages, grains and living. Power of a land owner, fuedal lord or emperor was measured against the land, he owned or captured. Power dynamics of regional and global power politics was mainly centered over expansion of terrotorial limits of land.
Why land was considered so vital?
Because every source and mean that came to strengthen the power of state, was dependent on land.
Industrial revolution in west changed the situation in new form. Society started getting mechanized rapidly over time.It was “industrialised society” with machines as main source of power and strength.Colonial power got strengthened with inventing new technologies. Major part of the world was under the sway of colonial powers with the help of advanced technologies.
Advent of 20th century saw new shades of power politics. With invention of Telephone in 1876 to Television in 1927, information communication technologies became major part of mussling the power.Whether it was Lenon’s revolution or Hitler’s Nazism, print and electronic media played vital role in spreading the ideologies. Cold war era became the epicentre of information communication technologies. News agencies, media houses and hollywood movies played key role in advancing the capitalistic interests and degrading the expanding communism. After end of cold war, era of internet started.Internet has changed the life style of society.We are living in much informed society. Modern information and communication technologies have tied us into global village where “information” has become an asset . We call it information society or net-worked society also. Now global powers earn more than 50% of their GDP by mere selling information in different forms and manifestations.
From land as “power influencer” to information selling as “power contributer”, how our society has changed

4% Education Budget

United Nations urges its members to spend atleast 4% of Budget on education.
Constitution of Pakistan (25A) declares that there should be free access to Schools for children aging 5 to 16 years.
Despite the United Nations recommendations and constitutional provision of free schooling to Children, 2.5 crore children are reported to out of schools. It is alarming indicator for a country which is well-entrenched in snare of extremism, ignorance and lawlessness.A country that needs educational emergency to confront the spate of extremism allocates 2.2% of education. A good amount of allocated goes to corruption and what remains to support the educational system is deadly scarce.
Low budgeting for education is one of key problem but it is not the just one reason. Pakistan has four education system that work in their own sphere and capacity.
First are Government Schools that provide free but poor quality education to children.Second are private schools that work in the areas where there are no Government schools.Their quality of education is no more better than Government schools. Third are Madrassahs that mainly provide religious education to children. Not being equipped with moderation education and facilities, madrassahs have become nightmare in relation with spread of extremism in Pakistan.On fourth, there is elite private school system which harbors only rich class of society. It has all the facilities to support children to become leaders of the society. Therefore, society is divided on the lines of educational and academic bringing leading to class based society having masters and slaves.
Higher level education is also class based. There are government universities catering the desires of inspiring poor students and others are private universities sufficing the wishes of elite class.
How can we dream of unity, faith and discipline when right to free education is specified only for those whose money deserve.

Game of Choices, bureaucratic relief valves and rise of Mustafa Kamal

Political awakening was never allowed to thrive in motherland.Make-shifts were made to satisfy the anger of people and cater the needs of power politics.
Mustafa Kamal’s rise is just an episode to that very tale.MQM has been in the limelight of media over several allegations.It’s chief Altaf Hussain was protrayed as RAW agent.
By elections and then later on local body elections proved that such character-questioning compaign did not serve the purpose.
It is quite ironical that MQM was created to balance and limit the power of PPP in Urban Sindh.Same tactics are being utilized to limit the role of MQM in Karachi.
Where lies the political conscious of common person, it remains un-attended enigma.If you keep on changing the faces to give the name of “change” ,it will lead to nothing but strengthening of Mafias.
When you stop the process of developing social consciousness and used to “bureaucratic relief valves”, then the likes of Nawaz Sharif and Altaf Hussain surface.
This game of choices and beaurocratic relief valves have ruined the country to dead end. Lack of social cohesion, monster of extremistic attitudes and weakening of civil society’s voice is outcome of policy of elities to bring favourites one in political arena by manuevering the public anger.

Aiman’s Suicide story

Once I was child, I always stereotyped things in best fit frames of life. When I started school, I tried to discover the world from un-walled environs.Hoping to come up to the expectations is worst psychological pressure, a student always meet in his life. I felt the burden of being praised and honoured.
Once I read these news.It reminded me of all the vicious circle of psychological pressures in my life.
Aiman was just 16 years old with all the youthful energy to see dreams and try to cash them. She was innocent angel who went to exam to prove her parents that “آپ کی بیٹی پڑھ سکتی ہے۔”.What her villagers are saying to parents that “بیٹی کو پڑھا کر کیا کرنا ہے”,I will prove them wrong.I will prove my parents right for allowing me to go school.
She huddled herself in poor house and studied till late night.Next day, she was down on paper, trying to write down what her mind spoke.
She came home with heavy heart. “Mama! I will get fail”.Poor un-educated mother did not know that dreams to stay accomplished need soothing voices.Young emotional hearts need melody of encouragement. For her mother, it was nothing to be worried.Poor soul needed encouragement to come out of those psychologically ridden state of mind.When she thought that I have missed the most cherished dream, she decided to blow off candle of life.